human papillomavirus

human papillomavirus molecule

Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on human skin or in the genital area. Both men and women are almost equally susceptible to the virus.

It is worth noting that an infection of this type may indicate the formation of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them affect only the female genitals.

The World Health Organization studied HPV - the human papillomavirus is so briefly called and found that more than 60% of the earth's population is infected with it. Furthermore, some of them are carriers only, while in others it manifests itself in the form of papillomatosis of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases, the human papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.

Etiology

About 60% of the world's population are potential carriers of human papillomavirus infection. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the provocative factors are the following:

  • the onset of sexual activity at an early age;
  • unprotected sex, frequent change of sexual partners;
  • chronic inflammation of the genital area, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • frequent abortions;
  • weak immunity;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.

As medical practice shows, women are in the main risk group. The probability of "getting" such a disease is quite high in people in the age group of 20-45 years. That is, those who lead an active sex life.

General symptoms

Symptoms of this type of infection depend on what exactly was the provocative factor. The disease does not have a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:

  • the formation of warts;
  • irritation of the skin in the genital area;
  • discomfort during intercourse;
  • redness and partial itching.

At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of skin irritation and itching may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it in any case. With such symptoms, it is better to consult a dermatologist immediately.

Warts most often occur in the following places:

  • on the skin of palms, soles;
  • in the genital area;
  • in the oral cavity.

In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. As for men, the oncogenic factor is observed much less frequently.

It is also worth noting that in the early stages of development, a disorder of this type of symptoms practically does not produce. This is what often leads to an oncogenic risk factor for infection.

Pathogenesis

Infection with the virus is only possible if a healthy person has microtrauma in the genitals. In this case, the papillomavirus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to develop.

The incubation period for an oncogenic type of virus can last from several months to several years without showing any symptoms. In other words, an already infected person may be a carrier and not be aware of it.

HPV in women

As already mentioned, women aged 20-45 are most susceptible to the virus. But here it is worth noting that in the main risk group are those who often change sexual partners and have unprotected sex.

This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:

  • high oncogenicity;
  • low oncogenicity;
  • non-oncogene type.

The most dangerous for women's health is an infection of a high type of oncogenicity. It almost always leads to cancer - a malignant tumor, cervical cancer. The risk of such a development of pathology is 90%. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the disease in the early stages of development does not show symptoms. Occasionally there may be small warts on the palms and soles of the feet.

With a type of infection with high oncogenicity, warts form. These are formations that look like warts, but with jagged edges. Such formations may occur in the vagina, anus, in the perineum. Sometimes warts can take the form of bubbles with liquid, which eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.

A high type of HPV infection can also cause cancer of the vagina and vulva. In rarer clinical cases, cancer of the nasopharynx is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to completely cure a high form of HPV oncogenicity.

papillomavirus in men

Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without symptoms. It is worth noting that in the main risk group, men who frequently change sexual partners have unprotected sex.

Pathological formations are located in such places:

  • on the head and shaft of the penis;
  • on the skin of the scrotum;
  • in the middle flesh;
  • on the mucous membrane.

Such formations can be grouped. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, they can only be accompanied by itching or burning during intercourse.

A virus of this type in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to genital cancer. However, if you start treatment on time, the risk of oncogenic diseases is minimized. Warts caused by HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. Antiviral drugs are prescribed along the way. Therefore, in the early stages of the development of this type of disorder in men, it can be completely eliminated.

human papillomavirus in women and men

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of HPV infection consists of several stages. Initially, an examination is performed by a doctor and clarification of the anamnesis. If the disease is suspected in women, the primary examination should be performed by a gynecologist. The following tests can then be prescribed:

  • vaginal scraping;
  • biopsy of the vaginal tissue;
  • PCR analysis.

The latter makes it possible not only to determine the diagnosis accurately, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, its form of development. If there is a risk of developing an oncological disease, a general and biochemical blood test, instrumental research methods, have also been prescribed.

Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is a study of the cervix to identify profound pathological changes.

As for men, the diagnosis has roughly the same picture. After examination by a urologist or surgeon, a referral for examination is given.

Only according to the results of the diagnosis can a competent doctor prescribe the correct course of treatment. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment

Currently, there is no drug in medicine that can purposefully destroy the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease is taken into account, but also the cause of its occurrence. It is also worth noting that a person who has been ill or is ill with the HPV virus should be examined regularly by the attending physician. It is only possible to cure papillomavirus completely in the early stages. In any case, the risk of developing cancer or the formation of a malignant tumor is always there. Avoiding the virus is easier than getting rid of it.

Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following phases:

  • removal of warts or warts;
  • drug treatment to prevent new formations;
  • therapy aimed at strengthening the immune system.

It should be borne in mind that such a treatment program is useful only if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment program includes drugs to eliminate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in any case. In most cases, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not preclude recurrence of the disease.

It is much harder to cure the HPV virus if it has become chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.

Treatment of the human papillomavirus is possible only by a competent specialist. Self-medication is unacceptable here as HPV virus is recognized as oncogenic. Therefore, in most cases, it is quite difficult to cure it. Even surgical removal of genital warts or warts does not preclude their restoration.

How to treat papillomavirus properly, only a specialist can say. The use of folk remedies to cure HPV is not enough. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should seek competent medical attention immediately.

Prevention

One of the most effective preventive measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the development in the body of not only HPV infection but also cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules must be followed:

  • protected sex only;
  • strengthening the immune system;
  • regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist;
  • personal hygiene.

You need to closely monitor your health, do not abuse alcohol, smoking. As for intimate life, frequent changes of sexual partners should be excluded if possible. With symptoms you should consult a doctor immediately and not self-medicate.